Carnio Sacral Therapy in Pediatrics
At labor, the presenting part becomes edematous and bruised or may be fractured. The head shows different degrees of injury that resolve in few days or weeks. Ischium spines of the pregnant mother’ pelvis may compress the facial nerve of the fetus as it leaves the parotid gland.
In breech presentation, injury to the limbs may occur due to traction. The cervical spine may be damaged with residual paralysis in arms and legs or paralysis of the abduction at shoulder, flexion at the elbow and extension/supination of the wrist (Erbs palsy).
In face presentation, eye/retina injury may complicate face edema.
Umbilical cord may go around the neck - a serious vascular trauma.
Transition to independent life:
The infant activates it's own systems for obtaining oxygen, nutrients and discarding waste. During birth, the head is melded then expand to activate cranial rhythm and venous circulation of the brain. The chest wall is squeezed in birth canal and the lung fluid is pushed out to facilitate pulmonary functions and activate its circulation.
The umbilical cord is stretched and clamped. The arterial oxygen falls and Carbon dioxide rises, a stimulus to provoke a gasp and a tidal breathing begins after 30 seconds. Circulatory adjustments after birth occur.
During pregnancy, fetus is normally in low arterial oxygen concentration (Hypoxemia) but perfusion is normal, acidosis does not develop and no fetal compromise occurs. When oxygen delivery is compromised, acidosis develops and fetus gets hypoxic.
Size and weight at birth:
"Small for dates" babies are also described as 'small for gestational' age.
Large for dates babies are known with diabetic mothers. Low for dates babies, known in poor socioeconomic conditions, congenital abnormalities, intrauterine infections, multiple pregnancies, poor placental function, smoking drug and alcohol abuse. This may lead to premature or pre-term birth, poor fetal growth and will need prompt resuscitation and are prone to hypoglycemia for few days after birth. May need incubator.